Examination of Whitaker’s Race Work (2005)
A. Various scholars:
While the principal misappropriation of the writings, research, and findings of others in Race Work occurs for Luckingham’s Minorities in Phoenix, uncredited use of other scholars’ words and ideas, and even text taken from book jackets, appears elsewhere.
1A “Book Description” of Quintard Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier (2002) http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/CV/bd_in_search.htm
“In Search of the Racial Frontier challenges that view in a rich, complex chronicle of western African Americans that begins in 1528 with the arrival of the Moroccan Esteban in Texas, the first of many hundreds of Spanish-speaking blacks. By 1800 the earliest of the English-speaking blacks had moved West as slaves, fur trappers, or servants, creating the nucleus of post-Civil War communities. Thousands of African Americans later migrated to the high plains while others drove cattle up the Chisholm Trail--the famous black cowboys--or served on remote army outposts.”
1B. Whitaker, Race Work, p. 10
“Beginning in 1528 with the arrival of the Moroccan Esteban de Dorantes in Texas, the first of many Spanish-speaking blacks, African Americans were populating the region. By 1880 [sic] the earliest English-speaking blacks had moved west as slaves, free farmers, fur trappers, or servants, creating the nucleus of post-Civil War communities. Thousands of African Americans later migrated to the high plains, while others, such as the legendary Nat Love, drove cattle up the Chisholm Trail or served on remote army outposts.”
2A. Lawrence de Graaf, “Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African Americans,” Journal of the West (1996), p. 24-25.
“At the heart of this discrimination were the policy of the armed forces, which either placed blacks in separate units, unlike Mexican American or American Indians, or confined them to labor roles. Because Afro-American troops were a small percentage of the total military, the segregation of recreational facilities left them with few on-base sources of entertainment. And because many bases were in rural areas with few local blacks, the troops were even more disadvantaged in outside recreation. Some military authorities encouraged segregation in towns. Businesses in San Bernardino, California, for instance, were posting “WE CATER TO WHITE TRADE ONLY” signs by mid-1944….”
2B. Whitaker, Race Work, pp. 70-71. Footnote 24 cites de Graaf, 25, where the primary source for the signs appears but does not reference use of argument or indicate by quotation direct use of de Graaf’s text.
“Military bases in the American West placed black soldiers, unlike Mexican American or American Indian soldiers, in separate units or confined them to labor roles. Due to racial segregation and their small numbers, African American troops found few sources of entertainment on the base. Moreover, since most bases were in predominantly white rural areas, black soldiers had even fewer options when they left their stations. Many military authorities encouraged segregation in surrounding cities. Lawrence B. de Graaf has demonstrated that in San Bernardino, California, white business owners posted ‘We Cater to White Trade Only’ signs by 1944.” Fnt 24
3A. Scott and Womack, Double V: The Civil Rights Struggle of the Tuskegee Airmen, p. 154
“The inaugural class of thirteen flying cadets of the 99th Pursuit Squadron began its training at Tuskegee Institute on July 19, 1941. All of the men, who were dubbed the “Lonely Eagles” by the Negro press, resided in a bath house on the Tuskegee Campus. Their training consisted of four levels: preflight, or ground school; primary flight training; basic military flight training; and advanced military flight training. All of the instruction was provided by military personnel except the physical education activity and some of the primary flight training which was conducted by Tuskegee Institute Flying School chief, C. Alfred Anderson. Preflight training was provided on a dormitory on the Tuskegee Campus. Basic and advanced flight training was to occur at the new army field, once it was completed. If the cadets successfully completed the four phases to the satisfaction of all the instructors, they would receive their pilot’s wings and a commission as an officer in the army air corps. “
3B. Whitaker Race Work, p. 68 footnote 16 cites other books but does not cite Scott and Womack, Double V.
“The first class of thirteen flying cadets of the 99th Pursuit Squadron began its training at Tuskegee on July 19, 1941. The black press labeled the men the Lonely Eagles because of their small numbers and segregated status. They were trained in four phases: preflight, primary flight, basic military flight, and advanced military flight training. The instruction was provided primarily by white military personnel, with the exception of physical education and a limited amount of primary flight instruction, which were taught by Tuskegee Flying School chief C. Alfred Anderson. Cadets received their preflight education in a dormitory on the Tuskegee campus and their primary training on Tuskegee’s Morton field. Their basic and advanced training were scheduled to be conducted on Army Field [sic], which was under construction during the summer of 1941. If a cadet was one of the few who successfully completed the four stages of training, he would receive his pilot’s wings and a commission as an officer in the U.S. Army Air Corps.” Ftnt 16